The Ministry and members of the Republican Party, who opposed the Treaty, stand for the camera after contesting the policy of the Free State Party at the 1922 elections. On January 14th 1922, a meeting of the members elected to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland was held at the Mansion House, Dublin. At the meeting the Anglo-Irish Treaty was ratified by the Irish side and a Provisional Government was elected. Michael Collins was appointed Chairman and the Provisional Government took up office two days later on January 16th 1922 when the British administration handed over Dublin Castle to Collins in person.
The Treaty, which would replace the Republic as a dominion of the British Commonwealth, was signed on December 6th. De Valera was not happy with the signing of it as he had stipulated that regardless of the outcome the delegates should not be pressured into any agreements and should return to consult with the cabinet and him, their President.
After the Treaty was narrowly ratified, de Valera and a large majority of Sinn Féin T.D.s left Dáil Éireann and Arthur Griffith was elected President.